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 A Grammar Of The English Tongue

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مُساهمةموضوع: A Grammar Of The English Tongue   الأربعاء فبراير 04, 2009 7:09 am

A Grammar of the English Tongue
Project Gutenberg's A Grammar of the English Tongue, by Samuel Johnson This eBook is for the use of
anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re−use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
www.gutenberg.net
Title: A Grammar of the English Tongue
Author: Samuel Johnson
Release Date: February 18, 2005 [EBook #15097]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO−8859−1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE ***
Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins and the PG Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
A
DICTIONARY
OF THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE:
IN WHICH
THE WORDS ARE DEDUCED FROM THEIR ORIGINALS, EXPLAINED IN THEIR DIFFERENT
MEANINGS,
AND
AUTHORIZED BY THE NAMES OF THE WRITERS IN WHOSE WORKS THEY ARE FOUND.
ABSTRACTED FROM THE FOLIO EDITION,
BY THE AUTHOR,
SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D.
* * * * *
TO WHICH IS PREFIXED,
DR. JOHNSON'S PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL FOLIO EDITION,

AND
HIS GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
1812.
* * * * *
A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE.
GRAMMAR, which is the art of using words properly, comprises four parts: Orthography, Etymology,
Syntax, and Prosody.
In this division and order of the parts of grammar I follow the common grammarians, without inquiring
whether a fitter distribution might not be found. Experience has long shown this method to be so distinct as to
obviate confusion, and so comprehensive as to prevent any inconvenient omissions. I likewise use the terms
already received, and already understood, though perhaps others more proper might sometimes be invented.
Sylburgius, and other innovators, whose new terms have sunk their learning into neglect, have left sufficient
warning against the trifling ambition of teaching arts in a new language.
ORTHOGRAPHY is the art of combining letters into syllables, and syllables into words. It therefore teaches
previously the form and sound of letters.
The letters of the English language are,
Roman. Italick. Name.
A a A a a
B b B b be
C c C c see
D d D d dee
E e E e e
F f F f eff
G g G g jee
H h H h aitch
I i I i i (or ja)
J j J j j conson.
K k K k ka
L l L l el
M m M m em
N n N n en
O o O o o
P P P p pee
Q q Q q cue
R r R r ar
S s S s ess
T t T t tee
U u U u u (or va)
V v V v v conson.
W w W w double u
X x X x ex
Y y Y y wy
Z z Z z zed
To these may be added certain combinations of letters universally used in printing; as, fl, ff, fi, ffi, ffl, and &,
or and per se, and.
Our letters are commonly reckoned twenty−four, because anciently i and j as well as u and v were expressed
by the same character; but as those letters, which had always different powers, have now different forms, our
alphabet may be properly said to consist of twenty−six letters
Vowels are five, a, e, i, o, u.
Such is the number generally received; but for i it is the practice to write y in the end of words, as thy, holy;
before i, as from die, dying; from beautify, beautifying; in the words says, days, eyes; and in words derived
from the Greek, and written originally with [Greek: y], as sympathy, [Greek: sympatheia], system, [Greek:
systêma].
For u we often write w after a vowel, to make a diphthong; as, raw, grew, view, vow, flowing; lowness.
The sounds of all the letters are various.
In treating on the letters, I shall not, like some other grammarians, inquire into the original of their form, as an
antiquarian; nor into their formation and prolation by the organs of speech, as a mechanick, anatomist, or
physiologist; nor into the properties and gradation of sounds, or the elegance or harshness of particular
combinations, as a writer of universal and transcendental grammar. I consider the English alphabet only as it
is English; and even in this narrow disquisition I follow the example of former grammarians, perhaps with
more reverence than judgment, because by writing in English I suppose my reader already acquainted with the
English language, and consequently able to pronounce the letters of which I teach the pronunciation; and
because of sounds in general it may be observed, that words are unable to describe them. An account,
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: A Grammar Of The English Tongue   السبت فبراير 07, 2009 4:35 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: A Grammar Of The English Tongue   الأربعاء مارس 25, 2009 3:48 pm

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A Grammar Of The English Tongue
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